Basic English Grammar of Direct and Indirect speech

Let’s start Basic English Grammar of Direct and Indirect speech

Basic English Grammar of Direct  and Indirect  speech

Direct Speech   –  The speech spoken directly by subject.

Indirect Speech  –If the direct speech is repeated by any other.

Reporting  verb                   Reported speech

 Ram  says                            “ I am  going “

 Ram says            that             he is  going.


1. Direct speech ka Reporting verb present /future tense me ho to indirect speech ke reported speech ke tense me koi change nhi hota h .eg-

First-person –subject

Second person  –object

Third-person –no change

“……..”-   that

D S- He says “ I go.

Is –he says that he goes.

Ds –he will say “ I go “.

Is –he will say that he goes.


2. Direct speech me Reporting verb past tense me ho or reported speech present /future tense me ho to, Indirect speech ka reported speech past tense me change ho jata h .eg –

Direct speech ka                                         Indirect speech ka

Reported speech         change into           Reported speech

1.Present indefinite        change into          past indefinite

2.Present continuous      change into          past continuous

3.Present perfect              change into          past perfect

4.Present perfect continuous change into past perfect continuous.


1.Past indefinite                change into    past perfect

2.Past continuous             change into     past perfect continuous  

3.Past perfect                   change into            past perfect

4.Past perfect continuous change into past perfect continuous.


No change in a speech in case reported speech depends on the universal truth.

Ds -He said, “man is mortal”.

Is -He said that man is mortal.

Ds-He said, ” God is everywhere “.

Is- He said that God is everywhere.



Interrogative sentence –say change into ask (no use of that )

Wh +Affirmation( positive sentence )

If /whether +affirmation (positive sentence)

Ds-Ram says to me “where are you going “?

 Is-Ram asks me where I am going?

Ds-Sita says to me “can you go “?

Is-Sita asks me if I can go.


Imperative sentence

        Order /ask /tell +to reported sp

Ds-Ramesh says to his servant “go to the market.

Is-Ramesh asks his servant to go to the market.

 Pleaserequested to +reported sp

Ds- I said to the teacher” please explain to the question to me”.

Is -I requested the teacher to explain the question to me.

Don’t- forbid/forbade+ to +reported sp

Ds –Ram says to me “don’t go.

Is –Ram forbid me to go.


Ds- The guide said to the student “please don’t touch the wall.

Is –The guide requested the student not to touch the wall.

Ds-He said to me “Don’t be foolish”

Is -He told me not to be foolish.


Suggestion –say –(advice to reported sp)

Ds-Ram says to me “take medicine “.

Is-Ram advises me to take medicine.


Let-   (propose that should )

Ds-Ram said “let us go.

Is-Ram proposed that he should go.

Ds-I said to him “let us go out for a walk.

Is -I proposed to him that we should go out for a walk.


Optative  sentence –

Say – wish /pray /bless/ cruse —that

Ds-Ram said to me “May you live long “.

Is-Ram wished that I might live long.


Exclamatory sentence

Say – exclaimed with sorrow /fear / joy /surprise /anger/ greed …..that ….

Ds-Ram said, “Alas!he died “.

Is-Ram exclaimed with sorrow that he had died.

Direct sp                   Indirect sp

this                             that

these                          those

now                            then

ago                             before

today                         that day

tomorrow                 the next day

yesterday                  the previous day

tonight                     that night

next week                 the following week

here                            there

Ex- Ds -He said, “I’ll come here again tomorrow “.

Is -He told me that he would go there again the next day.

Ds- Mohan asked me “are the boys here “?

Is- Mohan asked me if the boys were there.


Basic English Grammar of Direct  and Indirect  speech

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